Section Editor: Prof. Talaat I. Farag


Professor Fahd Al-Mulla is a gifted molecular biologist who conquered poliomyelitis.


- Prof. Sandy Raeburn, MD, PhD, FRCPE
Edinburgh & Nottingham Universities





We Deserve Better

Prof. Fahd Al-Mulla on Adversity and Science


In 1962, there was a poliomyelitis epidemic in Lebanon (reviewed by Matossian et al., Rev Med Moyen Orient. 1964 Jan-Feb;21:25-31.). My mother was 14-years of age then, and she remembered as a child, people walking with apparatuses she thought were "buckets" and wondered why were they doing this and wished to have one for herself.


At the age of 17, my mother gave birth to me. It must have been a very happy occasion for a teenager to get a real doll to play with and care for. It wasn't until 7-months later that I developed a fever and was diagnosed with poliomyelitis affecting most of my anterior spinal roots, which are spinal nerves involved in muscular movements. It really did not matter to me much because one gets used to work with what one has, especially for a child. However, now I realized that this has been driving me to do better all along, but it has not been an easy journey for sure.


I grew up in a small village called Doha in Lebanon. It was a good time, where my universe was our large home, which I shared with my mother and three lovely sisters and two brothers, and occasionally my father. He was a very busy businessman. We played in a large garden with my dog Max and the bushy fields outside the house. I do not remember I ever went to school. My mother tried to get me in a few schools in Lebanon but they refused admitting me as they were worried that I may not fit! I remember by the age of eight, I was teaching myself to read from the Encyclopedia Britannica 1965 addition. I refused to be rejected. In 1975, during the Lebanese civil war, the situation was dangerous for us and my parents decided to relocate me to Kuwait. At the age of nine, I lived in the dormitory of a place called "The Paralysis Institute." It was a horrible experience as the name also implied. I can write volumes about the difficult times and abuse I endured while at this facility. After two years. my mother visited me in the that dormitory and I remember her face when she saw me presented to her on an extra-large wheelchair.


She decided to take me back home to the bushes even if this entailed me not ever studying. Between the ages 11 and 13, I essential taught myself. I spent many hours reading the 1965 encyclopedia and was doing advanced English and Arabic literatures. I had no curriculum to follow but my own. Fortunately, a small school opened near our house called the Lycee National. I was admitted and did nearly four years of schooling. Driven by an insatiable thirst to learn and explore, I was the top student in my class, and perhaps in the school. My fellow classmates supported me, who sometimes had to carry me to be able to join them on field trips. These moments evoked my humanity. I realized human beings can be so nice, so supportive, and so very caring when they understand. This all ended in the summer of 1982 when Lebanon was invaded by Israel.


We took a pounding by the F-16 fighter jets but managed to survive and left to Cyprus on a cargo ship. From there we went back to Kuwait. My father insisted I go back to the Paralysis Institute, I was angry and frightened but I had no other choice. I passed my high-school with honors (scoring 92.8%) and wanted to go on a scholarship to do theoretical physics.  I thought atoms were the answer to everything. However, only medicine was available as a scholarship. Medicine! Me? A doctor of medicine? It was not easy to swallow, but I had to experience it especially after six operations to correct my bones in Lebanon. That can be done!


In 1985, I traveled to Scotland, it was the first time Glasgow University admitted students from Kuwait. I had an oral interview with the Dean and at least six other faculty members who wanted to make sure that I know what I am getting myself into especially that the environment and the Glaswegian architectural atmosphere was not conducive for a disabled potential student. It was a difficult interview but they realized I was determined. I did it. I graduated from medical school in 1993. It did not take me longer than usual but I diverted a little.


In 1988, I was allowed, among only ten top students to do a two-year intercalated Bachelor of Science degree in the fields of experimental pathology, immunology, or molecular biology. I was the only one to choose molecular biology. To me, this was the way forward. To my colleagues, this was useless! I always realized, probably influenced by my own curriculum, that molecules were the basis of any disease. It turned out that I was right. In 1999, I graduated with a Ph.D. studying the molecular basis of colorectal cancer metastasis with the late Prof. George Birnie. However, my best achievement in Glasgow was meeting my wife Zsofia Victor, a Hungarian and true humanitarian who was attracted to me covalently and who gifted me with two lovely sons Jaber and Yousef.  


I returned to Kuwait in 1999, and a scientific desert it was. There is nothing more painful to any "researcher"  than transporting him/her from a research fertile infrastructure to a place where research is not a priority. My mission was to change this. After all, a human with breast cancer living in Kuwait or anywhere should have equal opportunity to any female living in the West. It was difficult and I had to work on changing the culture. I had to convince people that research is a priority. I tried and I wrote and I lectured and I did my best to educate.


In the year 2000, I established the Shared General Facilities Laboratory in the Faculty of Medicine at Kuwait University. I was responsible for establishing, maintaining and organizing a state-of-the-art research laboratory in the Faculty of Medicine, which is essentially utilized by Health Sciences Center academics to attain and maintain excellence in biomedical research.  I am proud that we are among the first in the area to do whole genome and exome sequencing.


The age of personalized medicine, as I realized years ago, is here to stay and here in Kuwait, we are at the forefront of this. Let me offer an evidence-based medical proof of this concept . Before we started this venture, eighty percent of women with amplified her2 gene breast cancer used to die from their disease. Now with my introduction of her2/neu gene testing and consequent herceptin treatment, eighty percent of these women are alive. This reversal of fortunes comes from hard work, dedication, and above all love. My molecular pathology unit and genomic medicine work might be established but there is so much that remains to be done. The policymakers, however, need to listen to the scientists and give us more room to establish a better evidence-based healthcare system because our people deserve better.

Who is Fahd Al-Mulla?


Fahd Al-Mulla is a Professor of Molecular Medicine. He heads a Molecular Pathology Unit, which aims at delivering state-of-the-art diagnostic, targeted or tailored therapy and research facilities. Currently, his mandate is to build collaborative partnerships, invest institutional outputs, generate capital and resources, and promote public awareness as regards to the importance of scientific research outputs in resolving society’s problems and in expediting the development process. His research activities currently focus on identifying metastasis suppressor genes in colorectal cancer. This search led to the identification of two metastasis suppressors, namely Carbony Reductase and Raf Kinase Inhibitory Protein, which he and his team characterized further recently. Fahd Al-Mulla received his Medical Doctorate and Ph.D. from Glasgow University. He is a Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh.  Fahd Al-Mulla has extensive experience in Theranostics, and intellectual property development. He developed two state-of-the-art laboratories with quality assurance and other certifications.


Key Achievements


My International Memberships


My Photo Gallery


As a child in Lebanon




At Glasgow University Medical school 1990



At Glasgow University graduation with Ph.D in Molecular Genetics of Cancer. With my wife Zsofia, my sons Jaber and Yousef




From right to left: Fahd Al-Mulla, Husain Haider, Aisha AlQallaf, Athari. At the FISH LAB, the molecular pathology unit in the Faculty of Medicine.



From left to right: Fahd Al-Mulla, Eyad Al-Saleh (Vice-Dean Research), Abdulla Behbehani  (Dean of the Faculty of Medicine) and Milad Bitar (Co-Investigator) during a press conference announcing the discovery and patent of Raf kinase Inhibitory protein.



Giants of the Raf kinase inhibitory protein (RKIP) field at UCLA RKIP workshop




Grand lecture at the 3rd National Genetic Disease Conference 2012 in Dubai




Participated on my wheelchair and with my wife Zsofia and two boys Jaber and Yousef in the Terry Fox Foundation run in Kuwait



My Current Publications:      

Al-Mulla F., Going J.J. Sowden, E. T. Winter, A. Pickford, I. R.and Birnie G.D. Heterogeneity of mutant versus wild-type Ki-ras in primary and metastatic colorectal carcinomas, and association of codon-12 valine with early mortality. Journal of Pathology (1998). 182, 130-8.

Rayan K., Al-Mulla F., Jamieson T. and Birnie G.D. Hemizygosity of the max gene locus in HL60 cells. Cancer Genetics and Cytogenetics (1998). 107, 93-7.

Al-Mulla F., Milner-White J., Going J.J. and Birnie, G.D. Structural differences between valine-12 and aspartate-12 Ras proteins may modify carcinoma aggression.. Journal of Pathology (1999). 187, 433-438. With front-page coverage.


Al-Mulla F., Keith N.M, Pickford I.R., Going J.J. and Birnie G.D. Comparative genomic hybridization analysis of primary colorectal carcinomas and their synchronous metastases. Genes Chromosomes and Cancer (1999). 24, 306-14.


Endom Ismail, Fahd Al-Mulla, Shigeki Tsuchida, Kohji Suto, Paul R. Harrison & George D. Birnie. Carbonyl reductase: A novel metastasis-modulating function. Cancer Research  (2000). 60, 1173-6.


Andreyev HJ, Norman AR, Cunningham D, Oates J, Dix BR, Iacopetta BJ, Young J, Walsh T, Ward R, Hawkins N, Beranek M, Jandik P, Benamouzig R, Jullian E, Laurent-Puig P, Olschwang S, Muller O, Hoffmann I, Rabes HM, Zietz C, Troungos C, Valavanis C, Yuen ST, Ho JW, Croke CT, O'Donoghue DP, Giaretti W, Rapallo A, Russo A, Bazan V, Tanaka M, Omura K, Azuma T, Ohkusa T, Fujimori T, Ono Y, Pauly M, Faber C, Glaesener R, de Goeij AF, Arends JW, Andersen SN, Lovig T, Breivik J, Gaudernack G, Clausen OP, De Angelis PD, Meling GI, Rognum TO, Smith R, Goh HS, Font A, Rosell R, Sun XF, Zhang H, Benhattar J, Losi L, Lee JQ, Wang ST, Clarke PA, Bell S, Quirke P, Bubb VJ, Piris J, Cruickshank NR, Morton D, Fox JC, Al-Mulla F, Lees N, Hall CN, Snary D, Wilkinson K, Dillon D, Costa J, Pricolo VE, Finkelstein SD, Thebo JS, Senagore AJ, Halter SA, Wadler S, Malik S, Krtolica K, Urosevic N. Kirsten ras mutations in patients with colorectal cancer: the 'RASCAL II' study. Br J Cancer 2001 Sep 1;85(5):692-6.


Umemoto M, Yokoyama Y, Sato S, Tsuchida S, Al-Mulla F, Saito Y. Carbonyl reductase as a significant predictor of survival and lymph node metastasis in epithelial ovarian cancer. Br J Cancer 2001 Sep;85(7):1032-6.


Fahd Al-Mulla, and Elaine M. MacKenzie. In Vitro Invasion Differences between Mutated Ki-Ras Proteins. Journal of Pathology 2001 Dec;195(5):549-556.

Andreyev HJ, Benamouzig R, Beranek M, Clarke PA,  Cunningham D, Norman AR,  Giaretti W, Goeij AF, Iacopetta BJ, Al-Mulla F et al. Mutant K-ras2 in serum. Gut 2003; 52: 915-916.

Fahd Al-Mulla, May Al-Maghrebi, Govindarajulu Varadharaj. Expressive Genomic Hybridization: Gene Expression profiling at the Cytogenetic level.  Mol Pathol. 2003 Aug;56(4):210-7.


M. Al-Maghrebi, F. Al-Mulla,  L. Benov. Glycolaldehyde, a Reactive Intermediate for Advanced Glycation End-Products, Induces Apoptosis in a Human Breast Cancer Cell Line.

Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 2003 Sep 1;417(1):123-7.


Fahd Al-Mulla, Raba Al-Tamimi, Milad S. Bitar. Comparison of two probe preparation methods using long oligonucleotide microarrays. Biotechniques. 2004 Nov; 37(5):827-33. 


Milad S Bitar, Sabah Wahid, Seham Mustafa, Charles W T Pilcher, and Fahd Al-Mulla. α-lipoic Acid Mitigates Insulin Resistance in Goto-Kakizaki Rats. Horm Metab Res, 2004; 36(8), 542-9.


M. Amirrad, F. Al-Mulla, G. Varadharaj, S. S. George, N. Akhter, J. T. Anim. BRCA1 Gene expression in breast cancer in Kuwait: Correlation with prognostic parameters. Med. Princ. Pract. 2005., 14(2):67-72.


Al-Mulla F, Abdulrahman M, Varadharaj G, Akhter N, Anim JT. BRCA1 Gene Expression in Breast Cancer: A Correlative Study between Real-time RT-PCR and Immunohistochemistry. J Histochem Cytochem. 2005 May;53(5):621-9.


Bitar MS, Wahid S, Mustafa S, Al-Saleh E, Dhaunsi GS, Al-Mulla F. Nitric oxide dynamics and endothelial dysfunction in type II model of genetic diabetes. Eur J Pharmacol. 2005 Mar 21;511(1):53-64.

Bitar MS, Al-Saleh E, Al-Mulla F. Oxidative stress--mediated alterations in glucose dynamics in a genetic animal model of type II diabetes. Life Sci. 2005 Sep 30;77(20):2552-73


Hagan S, Al-Mulla F, Mallon E, Oien K, Ferrier R, Gusterson B, Garcia JJ, Kolch W. Reduction of Raf-1 kinase inhibitor protein expression correlates with breast cancer metastasis.
Clin Cancer Res. 2005 Oct 15;11(20):7392-7.


Fahd Al-Mulla, Milad S. Bitar, Abdulla I. Behbehani, Govindarajulu Varadharaj, James J. Going. Genetic Profiling of primary tumours predicts metastatic recurrence in early stage colorectal cancer. Mod Pathol. 2006 May;19(5):648-58.


Fahd Al-Mulla, Suad AlFadhli, Altaf Hasan Al-Hakim, James J. Going, Milad S. Bitar. Metastatic recurrence of early stage colorectal cancer is linked to loss of heterozygosity at chromosomes 4 and 14q. J Clin Pathol. 2006 Jun;59(6):624-30


Fahd Al-Mulla, Suzanne Hagan, Abdulla I. Behbehani, Milad S. Bitar, Shirley S. George, James J. Going, Jorge J. Curto  García, Lucy Scott, Nicky Fyfe,  Graeme I. Murray and Walter Kolch. Raf Kinase Inhibitor Protein (RKIP) expression in a survival analysis of colorectal cancer.  J Clin Oncol. 2006 Dec 20;24(36):5672-9

De Bruyne V, Al-Mulla F, Pot B. Methods for microarray data analysis.Methods Mol Biol. 2007;382:373-91.

Fahd Al-Mulla, Utilization of microarray platforms in clinical practice: an insight on the preparation and amplification of nucleic acids from frozen and fixed tissues. Methods Mol Biol.2007;382:115-36..

Fahd Al-Mulla and Rabaa Al-Tamimi. Uses of microarray platforms in cancer: a correlative study between genomic copy number changes and their expression at mRNA and protein levels. Methods Mol Biol. 2007;382:77-95.


Dallol A, Cooper WN, Al-Mulla F, Agathanggelou A, Maher ER, Latif F. Depletion of the Ras association domain family 1, isoform A-associated novel microtubule-associated protein, C19ORF5/MAP1S, causes mitotic abnormalities. Cancer Res. 2007 Jan 15;67(2):492-500.


Yokoyama Y, Xin B, Shigeto T, Umemoto M, Kasai-Sakamoto A, Futagami M, Tsuchida S, Al-Mulla F, Mizunuma H. Clofibric acid, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {alpha} ligand, inhibits growth of human ovarian cancer. Mol Cancer Ther. 2007 Apr;6(4):1379-86.


Fahd Al-Mulla, Suzanne Hagan, Waleed Al-Ali, Sindhu P. Jacob, Abdulla I. Behbehani, Milad S. Bitar,  Ashraf Dallol  and Walter Kolch. Raf Kinase inhibitor protein: Mechanism of loss of expression and association with genomic instability. J Clin Pathol. 2008 Apr;61(4):524-9

Kapila K, Kehinde EO, Anim JT, Mojiminiyi OA, Vinsu A, George SS, Al-Maghrebi M, Al-Mulla F. Could nuclear matrix protein 22 (NMP22) play a role with urine cytology in screening for bladder cancer? - experience at Kuwait University. Cytopathology, Volume 19, Issue 6  (p 369-374).

Kaput J, Cotton RG, Hardman L, Watson M, Al Aqeel AI, Al-Aama JY, Al-Mulla F,  et al. Contributors to the Human Variome Project Planning Meeting.  Planning the human variome project: the Spain report.  Hum Mutat. 2009 Apr; 30(4):496-510.


Mojiminiyi OA, Al Mulla F, Abdella NA. Which obesity index best explains the link between adipokines, coronary heart disease risk and metabolic abnormalities in type 2 diabetes mellitus?  Med Princ Pract. 2009;18(2):123-9.

Fahd Al-Mulla, J. Martin Bland, Deborrah Serratt, Julie Miller, Carol Chu, Graham T. Taylor. Age-dependent penetrance of different germline mutations in BRCA1 gene. J Clin Pathol 2009 Apr; 62(4):350-6

Marafie MJ, Al-Awadi S, Al-Mosawi F, Elshafey A, Al-Ali W, Al-Mulla F. Impact of 226C>T MSH2 gene mutation on cancer phenotypes in two HNPCC-associated highly-consanguineous families from Kuwait: emphasis on premarital genetic testing. Fam Cancer. 2009;8(4):289-98. Epub 2009 Aug 8.

Cotton RG, Al Aqeel AI, Al-Mulla F, Carrera P et al. Capturing all disease-causing mutations for clinical and research use: toward an effortless system for the Human Variome Project. Genet Med. 2009 Dec;11(12):843-9.

Bitar MS, Ayed AK, Abdel-Halim SM, Isenovi ER, Al-Mulla F. Inflammation and apoptosis in aortic tissues of aged type II diabetes: Amelioration with alpha-lipoic acid through phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt- dependent mechanism. Life Sci. 2010 Apr 11. PMID: 20388520

Kapila K, Anim JT, Francis IM, Al-Mulla F, George SS, Behbehani AI. Expression of estrogen receptor alpha and estrogen receptor beta in fine needle aspirates of breast carcinoma. Acta Cytol. 2010 Jan-Feb;54(1):25-30.PMID: 20306984


Al-Mulla. F.  RKIP-1 and the cell cycle: Novel insight into genomic instability. Forum on Immunopathological Diseases and Therapeutics. 2011 1:79-87. (Review)

Patrinos GP, Al Aama J, Al Aqeel A, Al-Mulla F, Borg J, Devereux A, Felice AE, Macrae F, Marafie MJ, Petersen MB, Qi M, Ramesar RS, Zlotogora J, Cotton RG. Recommendations for genetic variation data capture in developing countries to ensure a comprehensive worldwide data collection. Hum Mutat. 2011 Jan;32(1):2-9.

Kehinde EO, Al-Mulla F, Kapila K, Anim JT. Comparison of the sensitivity and specificity of urine cytology, urinary nuclear matrix protein-22 and multitarget fluorescence in situ hybridization assay in the detection of bladder cancer. Scand J Urol Nephrol. 2011 Mar;45(2):113-21.

Al-Mulla, F., Milad S. Bitar, May Al-Maghrebi, Abdulla I. Behbehani, Waleed Al-Ali, Oliver Rath, Brendan Doyle, Kit Yee Tan, Andrew Pitt, Walter Kolch.
Raf kinase inhibitor protein RKIP enhances signaling by glycogen synthase kinase-3β. Cancer Research 2011 Feb 15;71(4):1334-43.

 Al-Mulla, F., Milad S. Bitar, Zainab Taqi, Oliver Rath and Walter Kolch.Raf Kinase inhibitory protein (RKIP) modulates cell cycle kinetics and motility, Molecular Biosystems 2011 Mar 1;7(3):928-41.

Al-Turab M, Chehadeh W, Al-Mulla F, Al-Nakib W. Human metapneumovirus in patients with respiratory tract infection in Kuwait. J Med Virol. 2011 Oct;83(10):1811-7. doi: 10.1002/jmv.22193.

Al Khaldi RM, Al Mulla F, Al Awadhi S, Kapila K, Mojiminiyi OA.Associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the adiponectin gene with adiponectin levels and cardio-metabolic risk factors in patients with cancer. Dis Markers. 2011;30(4):197-212.

Al Saleh S, Al Mulla  F, and  Luqmani YA
Estrogen receptor silencing induces epithelial to mesenchymal transition in human breast cancer cells. Plos One 2011;6(6):e20610. Epub 2011 Jun 21.

Al-Humood SA, Al-Qallaf AS, Francis IM, Al-Shemmari SH, Junaid TA, Marouf RA, Al-Mulla F. Genotypic and phenotypic differences between  nodal and extranodal diffuse large B-cell lymphomas. J Histochem Cytochem. 2011 Oct 10; 59(10): 908 - 917.

Al-Mulla F, Samuel J. Leibovich SJ,  Francis IM, and Bitar SM. Impaired TGF-β signaling and a defect in resolution of inflammation contribute to delayed wound healing in female rats of type 2 diabetes. Mol Biosyst. 2011 Aug 18. PMID: 21850315

Bitar SM and Al-Mulla F. A defect in Nrf2 signaling constitutes a mechanism for cellular stress hypersensitivity in type 2 diabetes. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Aug 30. PMID:21878664

Murakami A, Fukushima C, Yoshidomi K, Sueoka K, Nawata S, Yokoyama Y, Tsuchida S, Ismail E, Al-Mulla F, Sugino N. Suppression of carbonyl reductase expression enhances malignant behaviour in uterine cervical squamous cell carcinoma: Carbonyl reductase predicts prognosis and lymph node metastasis. Cancer Lett. 2011 Dec 1;311(1):77-84.

Al-Mulla F. RKIP in Cellular Motility. J Cell Physiol. 2011 Sep 6. doi: 10.1002/jcp.23011.

David Matallanas, David Romano, Fahd Al-Mulla, Eric O’Neill, Waleed Al-Ali, Piero Crespo, Brendan Doyle, Owen Sansom, Matthias Drosten, Mariano Barbacid, Walter Kolch. Mutant K-Ras Activation of the Proapoptotic MST2 Pathway Is Antagonized by Wild-Type K-Ras. Molecular Cell. 2011 Volume 44, Issue 6, 893-906.


Al-Mulla F, Bitar MS, Feng J, Park S, Yeung KC. A new model for RKIP induced chemotherapeutic resistance. Plos One. 2012;7(1):e29532. Epub 2012 Jan 18.


Al-Turab M, Chehadeh W, Al-Mulla F, Al-Nakib W. Evaluation of the PrimerDesign genesig real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay and the INFINITI® Respiratory Viral Panel Plus assay for the detection of human metapneumovirus in Kuwait. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2012 Apr;72(4):358-62.


Bitar MS, Al-Mulla F. ROS constitute a convergence nexus in the development of IGF1 resistance and impaired wound healing in a rat model of type 2 diabetes. Dis Model Mech. 2012 Feb 23.


Ren G, Baritaki S, Marathe H, Feng J, Park S, Beach S, Bazeley PS, Beshir AB, Fenteany G, Mehra R, Daignault S, Al Mulla F, Keller E, Bonavida B, de la Serna I, Yeung KC. Polycomb protein EZH2 regulates tumor invasion via the transcriptional repression of the metastasis suppressor RKIP in breast and prostate cancer. Cancer Res. 2012 Apr 13.


Fahd Al-Mulla. Novel Flavonoid Didymin Inhibits Neuroblastomas--Letter. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2012 Apr 24.


Murakami A, Yakabe K, Yoshidomi K, Sueoka K, Nawata S, Yokoyama Y, Tsuchida S, Al-Mulla F, Sugino N. Decreased carbonyl reductase 1 expression promotes malignant behaviours by induction of epithelial mesenchymal transition and its clinical significance. Cancer Lett. 2012 Apr 24.


Al-Maghrebi M, Kehinde EO, Al-Mulla F, Anim JT. The effect of prostate tissue inflammation in benign prostatic hyperplasia on enhancer of zeste homolog 2 ribonucleic acid expression. Ann Saudi Med. 2012 May;32(3):262-8.


Patrinos GP, Smith TD, Howard H, Al-Mulla F, et al. Human variome project country nodes: Documenting genetic information within a country. Hum Mutat. 2012 Jun 29. doi: 10.1002/humu.22147.


Doyle B, Hagan S, Al-Mulla F, Scott L, Harden S, Paul J, Mulcahy H, Graeme I Murray GI, Sheahan K, O’Sullivan J, Kolch W. RKIP expression combined with peritoneal involvement and  lympho-vascular invasion predicts prognosis in Dukes’ B colorectal cancer patients. Histopathology. In press.


My Books


Fahd Al-Mulla is a
professor and Head of Molecular Pathology at Kuwait University. His email is and website is